Using 6502 Assembly Language

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Using 6502 Assembly Language Volume 1 How anyone can program the Apple II.
PURPOSE OF MANUAL.
 This manual provides 6502 assembly language instructions addressed directly to APPLE II computer applications. The information contained herein is intended for use by beginning, intermediate and advanced programmers.
SCOPE OF MANUAL.
 This manual contains explanations of basic symbols and terminology used by programmers and engineers. Included is an introduction to computer concepts, simple assembly language instruction examples, and detailed 6502 assembly language instructions as related to APPLE II computer requirements.

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1
 Purpose of Manual 1-1
 Scope of Manual 1-1
 General 1-1
Chapter 2 SYMBOLISM 2-1
 General 2-1
 Bit Strings 2-3
 Binary Arithmetic 2-8
 Unsigned Integers 2-9
 Nibbles (NYBBLES?), Bytes, and Words 2-10
 Signed Integers 2-11
 Hexadecimal Numbers 2-13
 Radix and Other Nasty Diseases 2-14
 ASCII Character Set 2-14
 Using Bit Strings to Represent Instructions 2-16
Chapter 3 REGISTERS, INSTRUCTION FORMATS, AND ADDRESSING 3-1
 General 3-1
 Accumulator (A or ACC) 3-3
 X-Register (X) 3-3
 Y-Register (Y) 3-3
 Stack Pointer (SP) 3-4
 Program Status Word (P or PWS) 3-4
 Program Counter (PC) 3-4
 Instruction Format (6502) 3-4
 Two and 3-Byte Instructions 3-6
 6502 Addressing Modes 3-8
*****************************************************************
Chapter 4 SOME SIMPLE INSTRUCTIONS 4-1
 General 4-1
 Assembly Language Source Format 4-1
 Introduction to Real Instructions 4-4
 Register Increments and Decrements 4-8
 Labels and Variables 4-9
 Expressions in the Operand Field 4-11
Chapter 5 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 5-1
 General 5-1
 Example Program 5-2
 JMP Instruction 5-3
 Processor Status (P) Register 5-5
 Break Flag (B) 5-6
 Decimal Flag (D) 5-6
 Interrupt Disable Flag (Z) 5-6
 Condition Code Flags (N, V, Z, C) 5-7
 Branch Instructions (6502) 5-9
 Loops 5-10
 Comparisons 5-11
 IF/THEN Statement Simulation 5-14
 FOR/NEXT Loop Revisited 5-14
 Testing Boolean Values 5-18
Chapter 6
ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS 6-1
 General 6-1
 Unsigned Integer (Binary) Arithmetic 6-1
 Subtraction 6-4
 Signed Arithmetic 6-5
 Signed Comparisons 6-7
 Binary Coded Decimal Arithmetic 6-8
 Unsigned BCD Arithmetic 6-8
 Signed BCD Arithmetic 6-10
 Arithmetic Review 6-10
*****************************************************************
Chapter 7 SUBROUTINES AND STACK PROCESSING 7-1
 General 7-1
 Variable Problems 7-4
 Passing Parameters 7-13
Chapter 8 ARRAYS, ZERO PAGE, INDEXED, AND INDIRECT ADDRESSING 8-1
 General 8-1
 Zero Page Addressing 8-1
 Arrays in Assembly Language 8-3
 Initializing Arrays at Assembly Time 8-8
 Using Index Registers to Access Array Elements 8-10
 Indirect Addressing Mode 8-13
 Indirect Indexed Addressing 8-16
 Indexed Indirect Addressing Mode 8-18
Chapter 9 LOGICAL, MASKING, AND BIT OPERATIONS 9-1
 General 9-1
 Complement Function 9-2
 AND Function 9-2
 OR Function 9-3
 EXCLUSIVE-OR Function 9-4
 Bit String Operations 9-4
 Instructions for Logical Operations 9-5
 Masking Operations 9-7
 Shift and Rotate Instructions 9-13
 Shifting and Rotating Memory Locations 9-16
 Using ASL to Perform Multiplication 9-17
 Using Shifts to Unpack Data 9-19
 Using Shifts and Rotates to Pack Data 9-20
Chapter 10 MULTIPLE-PRECISION OPERATIONS 10-1
 General 10-1
 Multiple-Precision Logical Operations 10-1
 Multiple-Precision Shifts and Rotates 10-3
 Multiple-Precision Logical Shift-Right Sequences 10-4
 Multiple-Precision Rotate-Left Sequences 10-4
 Multiple-Precision Rotate-Right Sequences 10-5
 Multiple-Precision Unsigned Arithmetic 10-6
 Multiple-Precision Unsigned Subtraction 10-8
 Multiple-Precision Signed Arithmetic 10-9
 Multiple-Precision Decimal Arithmetic 10-9
 Multiple-Precision Increments 10-9
 Multiple-Precision Decrements 10-10
 Multiple-Precision Unsigned Comparisons 10-11
 Signed Comparisons 10-14
Chapter 11 BASIC I/O 11-1
 General 11-1
 Character Output 11-1
 Standard Output and Peripheral Devices 11-9
 Character Input 11-11
 Inputting a Line of Characters 11-13
Chapter 12 NUMERIC I/O 12-1
 General 12-1
 Hexadecimal Output 12-1
 Outputting Byte Data as a Decimal Value 12-2
 Outputting 16-Bit Unsigned Integers 12-4
 Outputting Signed 16-Bit Integers 12-6
 An Easy Method of Outputting Integers 12-6
 Numeric Input 12-8
 Unsigned Decimal Input 12-11
 Signed Decimal Input 12-17
Chapter 13 MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 13-1
 General 13-1
 Multiplication 13-1
 Division Algorithms 13-7
Chapter 14 STRING HANDLING OPERATIONS 14-1
 String Handling 14-1
 Declaring Literal Strings 14-5
 String Assignments 14-5
 String Functions 14-7
 String Concatenation 14-9
 Substring Operations 14-11
 String Comparisons 14-12
 Handling Arrays of Characters 14-17
Chapter 15 SPECIALIZED I/O 15-1
 Apple I/O Structure 15-1
Chapter 16 AN INTRODUCTION TO SWEET-16 16-1
 Sweet-16 16-2
 Sweet-16 Hardware Requirements 16-10
Chapter 17 DEBUGGING 6502 MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAMS 17-1
 General 17-1
 GO Command (G) 17-2
 Initializing Registers and Memory 17-3
 Modifying Instruction Code (Patching) 17-6
 Program Debugging Session 17-10
Appendix A APPLE II COMPUTER TABLES, CHARTS, AND GRAPHS A-1

ISBN :

Publisher : Datamost, 1981

Author : Randy Hyde

Format : Paperback

-Randy Hyde-

 

 

 

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Using 6502 Assembly Language

 

 

 

This exhibit has a reference ID of CH33821. Please quote this reference ID in any communication with the Centre for Computing History.
 
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