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Articles, Reviews and Other Papers

The following entries are articles relating to LEO Computers that appear in journals, book chapters, magazines or have been presented at conferences.

Title Author Date
"Check Everything”: Validity and Correctness in LEO III Elisabetta Mori October 2019
1950s Computer Training Package Graham Briscoe 2016
65 years ago the age of the computer began....to sell a better tea cake Dominic Lawson 4th December 2016
66102 The LEO Computer: A case study in the use of an electronic computer in routine clerical work 1st July 1957
7 Ways Computers will change our lives Marie Misund Bringslid 14th October 2016
A Brief History of Early British Computers Simon Lavington 2015
A brief history of STL Vi Maile Unknown
A Celebration of Life in the 40s, 50s and 60s September 2018
A computer called LEO: Review: Frank Land 24th June 2003
A Computer in the Mail Order Business M.J Jackson 1966
A Conversation between Frank Land and Antony Bryant Antony Bryant, Frank Land 2020
A Discussion on the Use of Electronic Processing Equipment David Caminer 1957
A Historical Analysis of Implementing IS at J.Lyons Frank Land 1999
A LEO III: 21st Century Hindsight David Holdsworth 2015
A Life in Computing Alan Sercombe 2019
A look back at LEO Georgina Ferry 3rd December 2007
A non-technical description of E.D.S.A.C: How the Cambridge Electronic Calculator works June 1949
A Reminiscence Peter Hermon 1997
A Royal Visitor 1951
A Short Description of the EDSAC Type Calculator Circuits Used in LEO John Pinkerton 1951
A Third Survey of Domestic Digital Computing Systems Martin H Weik 1961
A Virtual LEO III Alan Cooper 2018
Academic Blog Chris Douce 2017
Acoustic Noise in the Computer Room Ernest Lenaerts 1967
Advanced Data Processing 22nd July 1960
AIS, LEO and the Pursuit of Good Work Richard Mason 2009
Algorithms aren't everything Chris Reynolds 2015
An edited transcript of the LEO Women’s Forum Hilary Caminer 8th March 2021
An Introduction to Compiler Writing J.M Forbes January 1965
Application of Digital Computers to Chrystallography Leo Fantl 1956
Appreciation of Professor Colin Tully (1936-2007) Frank Land 2009
Automatic Frequency Control John Pinkteron 1951
Automatic Programming Languages for Business and Science 1962
Automatic Square-Rooting on a Computer Ernest Lenaerts 1955
Back to Basics David Caminer 2000
Behind The Curtain at LEO David Caminer 2003
Behind the Iron Curtain Ralph Land 1979
Biography of John Maurice McClean Pinkerton Jan Lee 1998
Blighty's Revolutionary Cold War Teashop Computer - and Nigella Lawson Gavin Clarke 27th March 2013
Book Review: IT Girl: Ann Moffatt Frank Land 2021
Book Review: ‘A Computer Called LEO’ Mary Coombs 2003
British Journal of Administrative Management Special Issue A. Gibson 1991
British transistor manufacturers in the 1950s Stef Niewlsdomski 2016
Business Innovation: Introduction of new methods into business operations Maurice Wilkes 2000
Byting the Biscuit Neville Lyons 2020
Clerical Research G Mills 1937
CODIL: The Architecture of an Information Language Chris Reynolds 1990
Colvilles Ltd., Ravenscraig Steelworks - Use of Lector OMR in LEO III systems Stewart Logan 2022
Colvilles Technical Office Report Systems Development on the LEO III/32 Stewart Logan March 1967
Command by Magnetic Rings 21st July 1960
Computer scientist Frank Land receives OBE Cliff Saran 13th June 2019
Computer Story Mavis Hinds 1981
Computerised payroll's Golden anniversary Philip Whitley 2005
Computers for Business R Buelow 9th March 2021
Computers for Shell-Mex and BP 1962
Computers in Purchasing and Stores Departments: LEO at the Ford Motor Company Spares Depot Frank Land 1960
Computing was a piece of cake Graham Briscoe 1994
Conversation: J.M.M. Pinkerton Christopher Evans 1983
Coping with the 'American giants': mergers, relationships and attempted partnerships in the European computer industry in the early sixties Elisabetta Mori October 2017
Corby & The Electronic Brain: LEO II Billy Dalziel 2015
Current Developments in Commercial Automatic Programming A D’Agapeyeff 1st August 1962
Daily Mail Obituary for LEO I 9th January 1965
Data Processing, the history of the domain of Data Processing from 1954 to 1984 1984
David Caminer analyses what went wrong with one of the world’s first computers, the LEO R L Hudson 2001
David Caminer, a Pioneer of Computing Dies at 92 Douglas Martin 29th June 2008
David Caminer, creator of the first business computer Chris Bidmead 27th September 2011
David Tresman Caminer (1915-2008) Georgina Ferry 2012
Defiance to Compliance: Visions of the computer in post-war Britain James Sumner 2015
Designing a computer for data processing John Pinkerton 1990
Diminishing Returns Thomas R. Thompson 1955
Early Commercial Computing K Kemp 2014
Early Computers in Europe Richard Williams June 1976
Early History of the Information Systems Discipline in the UK: An account based in living through the period Frank Land 2015
Editorial: The History and Philosophy Department Nik Rushdi Hassan 2017
EE-LEO Brochure for LECTOR System 1963
Electronic Abacus Mary Goldring 1954
Electronic Clerk Takes Over J Burrell 27th September 1954
Electronic Computers & Their Possible Applications Neil C Pollock May 1955
Electronic Computers in the Office Murray Laver 1958
Electronics in the Office P. Spooner 1957
End of Moore’s Law? What’s next might be more exciting Madhumita Murgia 25th February 2016
English Electric and its successors at Kidsgrove John Wilcock 2019
Evolution of Constructional Methods from Radios to Computers John Pinkerton April 1997
Experience of a General Purpose Computer David Caminer 1956
Features of the LEO IIC Computer John Pinkerton December 1959
Fifty Glorious Years Staffordshire's Role in the Development of Computing Alan Eardley 14th April 2016
Four Years of Automatic Office Work Thomas R. Thompson 1st January 1958
Freemans (London, SW9) M.J Jackson 1970
Freemans Mail Order Mike Jackson 1997
From Academia to Business: the case of EDSAC and LEO Elisabetta Mori 14th October 2018
From baking to business computing Martin Cooper May 2020
From Cambridge to Café, The LEO Story Unknown
From LEO to Deep Mind: Britain’s computing pioneers Eric Schmidt 14th October 2016
From Tea Shops to Computer Company: The Improbable Story of LEO John Aeberhard 2011
Fundamental Principles of Expressing a Procedure for a Computer Application Thomas R. Thompson 1st November 1962
Getting to grips with computers 1960
Glyn Mills Bank and Army and Air Force Officers Payroll J W Lewis 1997
GPO Origins of Billing Computer System 1957
Grantchester Andrew Herbert 2019
Great British Innovation Vote - Georgina Ferry Georgina Ferry March 2013
Hardware in Europe John Pinkerton May 1965
Higher Systems Iain Simpson Unknown
History of organizational use of information technology to 1980 Eric Boyles 2005
History of the Kidsgrove Works Mark Woods 2002
History of the Leo III Software Preservation Project: Blow by Blow Account David Holdsworth 2015
How a chain of tea shops kickstarted the computer age Christopher Williams 10th November 2011
How Brit Computer Maker Beat IBM's S/360 - and Soviet Spies Gavin Clarke 9th April 2014
How Lyons Produced the World’s First Large Business Computer Geoff Cooper 2016
How Lyons Teashops Powered Computers Sam Jones 26th August 2011
How Technology Can Improve the UK Martha Lane Fox October 2015
ICL and the Evolution of the British Main Frame Martin Campbell-Kelly 1995
Information Age? The challenges of displaying information and communication technologies Tilly Blyth 23rd March 2015
Information Revolution Frank Land 2002
Information Technology Implementation: The Case of the World’s First Business Computer: The Initiation Phase Frank Land 1997
Innovation in a tea shop, whatever next? David Smith 25th November 2011
Intercode and Master Routines David Holdsworth 2016
Interview with Les Turtle Les Turtle 1990
Into South Africa Leo Fantl 1997
Introducing LEO III 12th August 1960
Inventing Systems Engineering John Aris October 1998
Inventing Systems Engineering John Aris 2000
IT pioneer is awarded OBE Ginny Ware 14th June 2019
It’s Quicker by Computer: ‘LEO’ Works out Rail Distances 24th June 1957
J. Lyons & Co: Annual General Meeting Report Sam Salmon 14th June 1965
J. Lyons and Co. Unknown
John Pinkerton and Lyons Electronic Office Maurice Wilkes October 2001
John Pinkerton and Lyons Electronic Office Maurice Wilkes 2001
John’s (John Parry) Story W.E.J. Parry 2nd May 2018 to 2nd June 2018
Just 2KB of Memory: LEO the world's first business computer celebrates its 60th birthday Ted Thornhill 18th November 2011
Key Points in 2001 2017
Landmarks: How the king of the jungle grew up on tea and cakes C Godwin 23rd April 1986
Large-Scale Computing in the Seventies John Pinkerton 1966
LEO - A Checking Device for Punched Pape Tape Ernest Kaye and G.R. Gibbs 1954
LEO - Lyons Electronic Office: world's first business machine 19th March 2010
LEO - Operations and Maintenance Ernest Lenaerts 1954
LEO and English Electric Simon Lavington 1980
LEO and its Applications: the Beginning of Business Computing David Caminer 1997
LEO and the Computer Revolution David Caminer December 2002
LEO Chronicle 1947-1954 John Simmons 1947
LEO Computer Reunion 2010 Anna Page 18th April 2010
LEO Computers in Australia Barbara Ainsworth 2013
LEO Computers Marks 60th Anniversary Tom Espiner 16th November 2011
LEO Computers, Olivetti and the emergence of business computing in Europe Elisabetta Mori 28th May 2021
LEO Conference 2001 December 2003
LEO Conference Report December 2003
LEO Film and Video Presentation, PACIS Conference 2022 Frank Land 5th July 2022
LEO Film Wins ABSW Video of the Year Award 2nd August 2022
LEO Film Wins ABSW Video of the Year Award 2nd August 2022
LEO I and the BR Job Tim Greening-Jackson 3rd October 2012
LEO I Virtual Reality Project Chris Monk 2019
LEO I – Recreating the Word’s First Business Computer Henry-Jones W. Johnson 2016
LEO I: The Construction of the World's First Business Computer James Duffy Unknown
LEO II and the Model T Ford Frank Land 2006
LEO III Software Rescue David Holdsworth 2015
LEO III/32 at Colvilles Ltd, Ravenscraig Works W Jack 1967
LEO III/7 Fire September 1967
LEO III: a rave from grave C Furey 4th September 1975
LEO in East Europe Ralph Land 2016
LEO in OZ Neil Lamming 2017
LEO Lives: LEO DME, Another story…… Tony Morgan 2019
LEO Plaque Unveiling in London Elisabetta Mori 6th December 2016
LEO remembered—By the people who worked on the world's first business computer Robert Galliers 2023
LEO the worlds first business computer Neville Lyons 14th July 2021
LEO, A Personal Memoir Frank Land 1994
LEO, Lyons Electronic Office: The World’s first Business Computer John Daines November 2017
LEO, Olivetti e i primi computercommerciali in Europa:un'occasione perduta? Elisabetta Mori 2018
LEO, the First Business Computer Neville Lyons 2016
LEO, The First Business Computer: A Personal Experience Frank Land 1998
LEO, the Pride of Lyons Peter Bird 1990
LEO-related mergers of the Uk computer industry 1963-2002 Neville Lyons Unknown
LEO: History and Technical Description John Pinkerton, Ernest Kaye 1954
LEO: II computer in una tazza da tè S Henin 2003
LEO: Office Automation is still going strong Cliff Saran 1st December 2021
LEO: Publicising and preserving the World’s first business computer Neville Lyons 2019
LEO: The First Business Computer, Review Paul Ceruzzi 1st February 1996
LEO: The Lyons Electronic Office. The story of the First Business Computer Neville Lyons 2015
LEO: the World’s First Business Computer Neville Lyons 2019
Lessons from LEO the Lyon Tom Berry January 2002
Lifetime AIS Member Receives OBE Adeline Border 11th June 2019
Living with Computers M Quest 1962
Lyons Electronic Office: How LEO Works Frank G Casey April 1954
Lyons Electronic Office: The World’s First Business Computer John Panter June 2020
Lyons Teashops Ralph Land 1997
Lyons: pride before a fall Alice Ryan 31st October 2019
Mainframe Computers 2007
Maintenance Procedures on a Computer R Gibson & Ernest Lenaerts January 1960
Marconi in Computers and Automation David Samways 2014
Market Research Applications on LEO John Gosden 5th July 1960
Mary Coombs Frank Land, John Aeberhard June 2022
Meet LEO, the World’s First Business Computer 9th November 2018
Middlesex University Scholarships and Awards 2016 R Weetch 2016
My family’s firm dished up tea to Britain and death to the Nazis Dominic Lawson 25th August 2019
Mysterious Death of Dennis Skinner Ralph Land 2018
New Computers for the Post Office Unknown
Notes on Commissioning of LEO Automatic Office at the Ministry of Pensions January 1960
Notes on the Way Mercury Delay Tubes Operate Neville Lyons Unknown
OBE for Frank Land Elisabetta Mori 8th June 2019
OBE for Frank Land of LEO fame June 2019
Obituary: John Gosden David Caminer 2004
Of Bunkers, Bytes, and Cakes Colin Williams 2015
On being employed by a computing pioneer – Leo Fantl Harry Brindley 2008
On the Origins of LEO John Daines September 2019
On-line Leo III User Manuals David Holdsworth Unknown
Operating and Engineering Experience Gained with LEO John Pinkerton 1954
Oral-History: Arnold Beck 24th March 1994
Patent Application: Improvements in and relating to data transfer apparatus John Pinkerton 29th May 1952
Performance Problems with LEO I John Pinkerton August 1975
Personality Profile: T.R. Thompson Unknown
Perspectives: Unlearnt lessons of Leo Alan Cane 6th December 2011
Pioneer of Business Systems 'Father of Office Computing' Georgina Ferry 2015
Pioneers of Payroll on Computers: LEO, the Army, the Navy Dockyards and De Havilland David Anderson, Janet Delve 2004
Plaque: LEO - world's first business computer 2016
Principles of Security John Simmons 1957
Problems of Auditing Computing Data: Internal Audit Practice and External Audit Theory Thomas R. Thompson 1st April 1960
QUIS LEO Aptitude Test Thomas Raymond Thompson 1964
Real-Time Software Design Tool. Applying Lessons from LEO F. Wagner, P. Wolstenholme February 2003
Reconstructing the early electronic computers James Hayes 19th April 2018
Reflections on Decision Support Pioneers Frank Land 2008
Remembering the World's First Business Computer November 2022
Report on Neville Lyons lecture to London Appreciation Society John F. Mann January 2020
Report on visit of inspection to LEO III/ in Edinburgh Museum Tony Morgan 2007
Review of a Computer Called LEO Jeremy May 2012
Review of “LEO remembered—By the people who worked on the world's first business computer” Robert M. Davison 2023
Review: Automatic Programming Languages for Business and Science John Caldwell 1962
Review: Conversation with Frank Land Martin Campbell-Kelly 2021
Review: Programmed Inequality: How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and lost its Edge in Computing Frank Land 2017
Review: ‘Electronic Dreams’ by Tom Lean J. Margolis 2018
Secrets of Eastcote Government Office Site: The Customs Excise Years Unknown
Simmons, John Richardson Mainwaring Georgina Ferry 2005
Sir Joseph Lyons: A double anniversary Neville Lyons 2017
Software - LEO III David Holdsworth 2020
Software, A Progress Report on the LEO III Intercode and Master Routine Emulator David Holdsworth 2013
Special Requirements for Commercial or Administrative Applications Thomas Raymond Thompson 1953
Stewarts and Lloyds Steelworks H Archibald 1997
Strategic Issues in Information Technology: Challenges, Strategies and Innovation in Managing Information Systems Robert Galliers 13th March 2011
Study of Static Charge on Paper Tape Ernest Lenaerts 1966
Systems Analysis for Business Applications Frank Land 1996
Systems Design – Then and Now John Aris 1996
Talking to the Computer Ernest Lenaerts 1969
Taming LEO – Overcoming the Inherent Unreliability of LEO John Pinkerton 17th January 1991
Teashop boffin who pioneered business computing Alan Cane 28th June 2008
Teleprocessing and LEO Frank Land 2017
The Application of Electronic Digital Computers and Calculators to Accountancy, Costing and Managerial Control David Caminer 1956
The Big Battle with Blue Gavin Clarke 2013
The Brains Behind The Buttons John E. Williams 5th January 1967
The Case For The First Business Computer Nick Pelling 2002
The curse of the monitor Ivo Vegter 1st July 2007
The Day LEO Roared S Cotterell February 2002
The Early Days Leo Fantl 1997
The Early History of LEO: The First Data Processing Computer John Pinkerton 1987
The emergence of business computing in the UK and in Italy: a comparison between LEO Computers and Olivetti Elisabetta Mori 4th February 2021
The Evolution of Design in a Series of Computers John Pinkerton 1st January 1961
The Evolution of LEO, the World’s First Business Computer 29th October 2020
The First Business Application: a Significant Milestone in Software History Robert Glass March 2005
The First Business Computer Graham Briscoe February 1994
The First Business Computer Nicholas Enticknap 1977
The First Business Computer: A Case Study in User-Driven Innovation Frank Land October 1998
The First Business Computer: A Case Study in User-Driven Innovation Frank Land 2000
The First Business Computer: A Case Study in User-Driven Innovation Review D. Studebaker 1st June 2000
The Formation of ICL and the New Range Virgillio Pasquali 2019
The Future of Computer History Johannes Blobel 18th November 2019
The General Post Office (i) Ninian Eadie 1997
The General Post Office (ii) Murray Laver 1997
The gradual acceptance of a variety of commercial English languages R.M. Paine 1965
The Great Railway Caper: Big Data in 1955 2nd October 2012
The heyday of computing: How the Brits ruled IT Cliff Saran 15th March 2016
The Inaugural Pinkerton Lecture David Anderson, Janet Delves 2001
The Influence of the Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory on the LEO Project John Pinkerton, Derek Hemy, Ernest Lenaerts 1992
The Institute of Administrative Management: Seventy-five Innovative Years A Gibson 1991
The Joe Lyons Story – Food for Thought May 2018
The Legacy of LEO: Lessons learned from an English Tea and Cakes Company: Pioneering efforts in Information Systems R.O. Mason 2004
The LEO approach: an evaluation John Aris 1997
The LEO Computer (Exatours) Alan ODonohue 25th October 2020
The LEO Computer: a case study in the use of an electronic computer in routine clerical work 1957
The LEO Computers Society Heritage Project John Daines October 2017
The LEO I, there was a machine Gordon Gibbs May 1965
The LEO System John Pinkerton 1954
The lion that failed to roar, LEO Fiona Harvey 20th August 2001
The Management of a Large Commercial Computer Bureau J W Lewis 1964
The Operations Control Center Multi-Computer Operating System John Gosden 1964
The Post Office enters the Computer Age 1965
The Potentialities of a Computer in the Smaller Office G.A. Randall 19th September 1959
The Provision of Digital Computers to British Universities up to the Flowers Report (1966) Jon Agar 1996
The Royal Dockyards Reg Cann 1997
The Scope for Electronic Computers in the Office Thomas R. Thompson May 1955
The Story of an Innovation David Caminer 1997
The Story of LEO John Daines 14th July 2021
The Story of LEO the World's First Business Computer Frank Land 2013
The Teashop Computer Manufacturer: J. Lyons, Leo and the Potential and Limits of High-Tech Diversification John Hendry 1986
The Teashops that Ruled the IT World Ross Bentley May 2003
The Thinking Behind EDSAC Maurice Wilkes 1990
The UK not the USA produced the first ever business computer John Daines 30th April 2021
The use of history in IS research: an opportunity missed? Frank Land 2010
The Widening Field Frank Land 1997
The World’s first commercial computer went into operation 50 years ago in Britain. Who developed it? R. Avery 2001
Thomas Raymond Thompson: Bio/Description Aaron Sylvan 2007
Thoughts on the ICL Basic Language Machine Virgillio Pasquali 2020
Time Sharing on LEO lll J W Lewis 1963
Timesharing History: An Update John Deane 2004
Timesharing History: the UK Story Alan Thomson 2004
Toward System Software John Gosden 1997
TR Thompson – The Leo Computer: A London connection Peter Butt October 2011
U3A: Remembering LEO Frank Land 2014
Unearthing LEO and the Managers Graham Briscoe 2019
Unveiling the plaque Hilary Caminer 29th November 2016
User-Driven Innovation: Review Thomas Bergin July 1997
User-Driven Innovation: the World’s First Business Computer: Review M Braithwaite 1998
User-driven innovation: the world’s first business computer: review Maurice Wilkes 1996
User’s experience of CLEO M Richardson 1964
Vale Wallace Weaving: An Appreciation Pam Garnsey 2013
Validity & Correctness before the OS: the case of LEO I and LEO II Elisabetta Mori October 2017
Visual Presentation of Binary Numbers Ernest Lenaerts 1951
What makes a history 'hidden'? Marie Hicks 2019
When Lyons roared Dan Sabbagh 30th September 1999
Why Lyon’s Leo was the Met Office’s cup of tea Paul Simons 30th December 2019
World’s First Business Computer Celebrates 60th Anniversary Ben Rooney 14th November 2011
Wythenshawe: The Second Computer Centre for Shell-Mex and BP 1963
‘….And How to Avoid Them’ David Caminer 1st January 1958

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