Dates In History

Syntax Era: Play the Computing History timeline game

0001 [Detail]
 0001 C. 100 BC Ancient Greeks build the Antikythera mechanism

1605 [Detail]
 1605 Francis Bacon first uses binary

1613 [Detail]
 1613 Richard Braithwaite first uses the word 'computer'

1614 [Detail]
 1614 John Napier invents logarithms

1622 [Detail]
 1622 William Oughtred invents the slide rule

1623 [Detail]
 1623 Wilhelm Schickard invents a calculating machine

1642 [Detail]
 1642 Blaise Pascal creates the Pascaline, or Pascal's calculator

1666 [Detail]
 1666 Samuel Morland builds a mechanical calculator

1703 [Detail]
 1703 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invents the binary system

1791 [Detail]
 26th December Charles Babbage is born

1815 [Detail]
 10th December Ada, Lady Lovelace, is born

1820 [Detail]
 18th November Thomas de Colmar patents the Arithmometer

1822 [Detail]
 3rd July Charles Babbage first articulates his idea for a calculating engine

1833 [Detail]
 5th June Ada Lovelace meets Charles Babbage

1837 [Detail]
 December 1837 Charles Babbage publishes a paper describing the Analytical Engine

1843 [Detail]
 1843 Scheutz invents the printing calculator

1851 [Detail]
 1851 Thomas de Colmar launches the Arithmometer

1860 [Detail]
 29th February Herman Hollerith is born

1873 [Detail]
 1873 Christopher Sholes invents QWERTY keyboard

1874 [Detail]
 17th February Thomas J. Watson Sr. is born

1878 [Detail]
 29th October Willgodt T. Odhner patents the Odhner Arithmometer

1887 [Detail]
 11th October Dorr E. Felt patents the comptometer

1888 [Detail]
 21st January Babbage's Analytical Engine operates for the first time
 21st August William Seward Burroughs patents his calculating machine

1889 [Detail]
 8th January Herman Hollerith patents punch card technology
 23rd September Nintendo is founded

1890 [Detail]
 1890 Herman Hollerith designs tabulating machines for 1890 U.S. Census
 11th March Hypertext pioneer Vannevar Bush is born
 16th August US Census Bureau announces results using Herman Hollerith's machine

1901 [Detail]
 10th September Herman Hollerith patents mechanical key punch

1906 [Detail]
 9th December Computer pioneer Grace Hopper is born

1911 [Detail]
 15th June 3 companies merge to become CTR

1914 [Detail]
 1st May Thomas J. Watson Sr. joins CTR

1918 [Detail]
 14th July Core memory inventor Jay Forrester is born

1919 [Detail]
 9th April ENIAC designer Presper Eckert is born

1923 [Detail]
 8th November Integrated circuit co-inventor Jack Kilby is born

1924 [Detail]
 14th February CTR becomes IBM

1925 [Detail]
 30th January Douglas Engelbart is born
 28th September Supercomputer pioneer Seymour Cray is born
 22nd October Julius Lilienfeld patents the transistor

1928 [Detail]
 1928 Introduction of 80-column IBM punch card format
 13th December Jack Tramiel is born

1929 [Detail]
 17th November Herman Hollerith dies

1934 [Detail]
 1934 IBM 405 Alphabetical Accounting Machine introduced

1936 [Detail]
 11th April Konrad Zuse patents fundamental ideas for Z1
 30th November Alan Turing invents the principle of the modern computer

1937 [Detail]
 1937 The Atanasoff–Berry Computer is first conceived
 12th November ILLIAC IV designer Daniel Slotnick is born

1938 [Detail]
 1938 Konrad Zuse builds the Z1
 1938 Eryl Wynn-Williams invents the scale-of-two counter

1939 [Detail]
 1st January Hewlett-Packard is founded

1940 [Detail]
 1940 Konrad Zuse builds the Z2

1941 [Detail]
 12th May Konrad Zuse builds the Z3

1942 [Detail]
 1942 The Atanasoff-Berry Computer is completed

1943 [Detail]
 January 1943 The first computing journal is published
 9th April Work begins on ENIAC
 December 1943 The Colossus Mark 1 computer is delivered to Bletchley Park

1944 [Detail]
 May 1944 Harvard Mark I becomes operational

1945 [Detail]
 8th February IBM files a patent for the Harvard Mark I
 July 1945 Vannevar Bush publishes his influential essay

1946 [Detail]
 14th February ENIAC is announced
 19th February Alan Turing proposes the Automatic Computing Engine, or ACE
 11th December The Williams-Kilburn tube, the first RAM, is patented

1947 [Detail]
 9th September First computer "bug" is found

1948 [Detail]
 27th January IBM builds the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator
 21st June The Manchester Baby, the world's first stored program computer, runs its first program

1949 [Detail]
 6th May EDSAC runs its first program
 13th June Jay Forrester records idea for core memory
 August 1949 EDVAC is delivered to the Ballistics Research Laboratory
 29th November Professor Bill Phillips unveils MONIAC at the LSE

1950 [Detail]
 1950 Zuse sells the first Z4 computer
 September 1950 The Elliott 152 computer is completed

1951 [Detail]
 12th February Ferranti Mark 1 delivered to Manchester University
 31st March The first UNIVAC is sold to the United States Census Bureau
 5th September LEO I computer becomes operational

1952 [Detail]
 1952 Grace Hopper completes the A-0 compiler
 July 1952 Heinz Nixdorf founds Nixdorf Computer
 4th November CBS News uses a UNIVAC computer to predict election

1953 [Detail]
 21st January Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft Corporation, is born
 2nd July IBM announces the Model 650 computer
 8th August Jay Forrester installs magnetic core memory at MIT

1954 [Detail]
 1954 Jack Tramiel starts Commodore
 20th September First FORTRAN program runs
 1st October IBM announces the Model 705 computer

1955 [Detail]
 24th February Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, is born
 2nd October ENIAC is retired
 28th October Bill Gates, co-founder of Microsoft Corporation, is born

1956 [Detail]
 28th February Jay Forrester patents magnetic-core memory
 4th March Wang sells core memory patent to IBM
 23rd March The first Ferranti Pegasus goes into service
 4th July First keyboard used to input data
 13th September IBM introduces the IBM 350, containing the first hard drive

1957 [Detail]
 26th February FORTRAN-1 is formally published
 May 1957 First LEO II installation
 August 1957 Ferranti Mercury is introduced
 23rd August DEC is founded
 14th October The BCS, or British Computer Society, is founded

1958 [Detail]
 12th September Jack Kilby creates the first integrated circuit

1959 [Detail]
 16th September The Xerox 914 is the first office copier for sale
 16th October CDC 1604 is introduced
 7th November COBOL is introduced

1960 [Detail]
 3rd June SEGA is founded
 November 1960 DEC releases the PDP-1, the first mini-computer

1961 [Detail]
 April 1961 LEO III completed
 25th April Robert Noyce patents the integrated circuit
 1st July Computerized spreadsheets first described
 25th July Clive Sinclair founds Sinclair Radionics
 1st October Minivac 601 computer launched

1962 [Detail]
 1962 The first commercial modem is manufactured
 17th November "Music from Mathematics" LP created using an IBM 7090 computer
 7th December The Manchester Atlas is inaugurated

1963 [Detail]
 1963 Theodore H (Ted) Nelson coins the word Hypertext
 17th June First edition of the ASCII standard is published
 September 1963 First graphic tablet developed

1964 [Detail]
 1964 Douglas Engelbart invents the mouse
 7th April IBM releases the System 360 range of commercial computers
 1st May First BASIC program runs
 September 1964 CDC 6600 is introduced
 November 1964 DEC releases the PDP-7

1965 [Detail]
 1965 Wang Laboratories introduce the Wang 300 electronic calculator
 22nd March DEC releases the PDP-8
 19th April Moore's Law is first proposed
 23rd July Commodore Business Machines floats on the Montreal Stock Exchange

1966 [Detail]
 August 1966 DEC releases the PDP-9

1967 [Detail]
 1967 IBM begins development of the floppy disk
 29th March Texas Instruments invents the pocket calculator
 June 1967 Elliott Automation merges with English Electric
 27th June Barclays Bank installs the first cash dispenser
 September 1967 DEC releases the PDP-10

1968 [Detail]
 4th June Robert Dennard and IBM patent DRAM
 18th July Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore found Intel Corporation
 1st September Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP-9100 desk calculator
 3rd December CDC announces the 7600 supercomputer
 21st December The Apollo Guidance Computer flies to the moon

1969 [Detail]
 1969 Nieman-Marcus advertises the Honeywell H316 Kitchen Computer
 1st May AMD, Advanced Micro Devices, is founded
 29th October ARPANET launches the world's first packet-switched wide area computer network

1970 [Detail]
 1st June Xerox opens the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)
 25th August DEC introduces the PDP-8/E
 October 1970 Intel release the Intel 1103, a 1kb DRAM chip

1971 [Detail]
 1971 Ray Tomlinson sends the first email
 17th February Intel announces the first EPROM
 29th June IBM CEO Thomas J Watson Jr. retires
 14th October DEC launches PDP-11/45 Giant Mini
 3rd November Bell Labs releases the first version of UNIX
 15th November Intel launches the 4004, the first microprocessor

1972 [Detail]
 1972 Dennis Ritchie develops the C programming language
 4th January Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP-35 calculator
 13th March Intel introduces the 8008 microprocessor
 6th April Seymour Cray founds Cray Research Inc.
 24th May The Magnavox Odyssey, the first video game console, is demonstrated
 August 1972 Clive Sinclair introduces the first pocket calculator
 3rd August First infra-red data link transmission in the UK
 29th November Atari introduces Pong

1973 [Detail]
 February 1973 R2E releases the Micral N
 1st March Xerox Alto personal computer is developed at Xerox PARC
 22nd May Bob Metcalfe invents Ethernet
 25th July UK connects to ARPANET
 19th October Atanasoff declared official inventor of the computer

1974 [Detail]
 1974 Gary Kildall creates the CP/M operating system
 12th April Intel introduces the 8080 microprocessor
 18th December MITS launches the Altair 8800 on the cover of Popular Electronics magazine

1975 [Detail]
 4th April Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft
 1st June DEC launches PDP-11/03
 22nd July MITS licenses Altair BASIC from Bill Gates and Paul Allen
 16th December IMS releases the IMSAI 8080

1976 [Detail]
 4th March Cray Research delivers the first Cray-1A
 1st April Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs, and Ronald Wayne found Apple Computer Inc.
 July 1976 Zilog releases the Z80 microprocessor
 July 1976 Apple launches the Apple 1
 11th July K&E manufacture their last slide rule
 20th September Shugart Associates introduce the 5 1/4" floppy disk drive

1977 [Detail]
 13th January Commodore introduces the PET 2001
 10th June Apple releases the Apple II
 5th July Clive Sinclair founded Science of Cambridge Ltd.
 3rd August Tandy announces the TRS-80 computer
 11th September Atari launches the VCS/2600 console

1978 [Detail]
 February 1978 Science of Cambridge releases the MK14
 11th June Texas Instruments announces Speak & Spell
 8th August Pioneer Venus launches the first microprocessor into space
 5th December Acorn Computers Ltd founded in Cambridge, UK

1979 [Detail]
 1st January Microsoft moves from Albuquerque, New Mexico to Bellevue, Washington
 March 1979 Acorn releases the Acorn System 1
 11th May VisiCalc publicly demonstrated for the first time
 June 1979 Apple releases the Apple II+
 17th October Personal Software releases VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet

1980 [Detail]
 29th January Sinclair launches the ZX80
 March 1980 Acorn releases the Acorn Atom
 19th May Apple announces the Apple III
 6th November Microsoft signs contract with IBM to create MS-DOS
 12th December Apple floats on the stock market

1981 [Detail]
 5th March Sinclair launches the ZX81
 3rd April Osborne launches the first portable computer, the Osborne 1
 May 1981 Commodore releases the VIC-20 in Europe and US
 31st May Texas Instruments releases the TI99/4A
 25th June Microsoft officially incorporates to become Microsoft, Inc.
 12th August IBM announces the IBM 5150, the first IBM PC
 12th September Wau Holland starts Chaos Computer Club, the first computer hacker group
 1st December Acorn releases the BBC Micro

1982 [Detail]
 7th January Commodore introduces the Commodore 64
 1st February Intel introduces the 80286 microprocessor
 1st April Cray sells the first Cray X-MP supercomputer
 23rd April Sinclair launches the ZX Spectrum
 May 1982 Japan sets out its 'Fifth Generation' project
 August 1982 Dragon Data releases the Dragon 32
 1st September Tangerine announces the Oric-1

1983 [Detail]
 19th January Apple launches the Apple Lisa
 26th January Lotus releases spreadsheet software Lotus 1-2-3
 18th February Paul Allen leaves Microsoft due to ill health
 2nd May Microsoft introduces the 2-button mouse
 9th May UK government launches the Alvey Programme
 1st June Mattel releases the Aquarius
 15th July Nintendo releases the Famicom in Japan
 10th November Microsoft announces Windows

1984 [Detail]
 22nd January Apple launches the Macintosh 128K
 22nd March IBM introduces the 3480 cartridge tape system
 3rd May Michael Dell founds the Dell Computer Corporation
 10th May Hewlett-Packard releases the HP 110 portable laptop
 1st July Novelist William Gibson invents the term cyberspace
 14th August IBM introduces the IBM 5170 PC/AT
 10th September Apple launches the Macintosh 512K
 1st October Philips releases the VG5000

1985 [Detail]
 20th February Olivetti buys 49 percent stake in Acorn Computers Ltd.
 26th April First ARM processor powered up
 23rd July Commodore releases the Amiga
 17th September Steve Jobs leaves Apple to start NeXT
 17th October Intel introduces the 80386 microprocessor
 20th November Microsoft releases Windows 1.0

1986 [Detail]
 14th January Acorn announces the BBC Master
 16th January Apple launches the Macintosh Plus
 19th January Brain, the first PC virus, is released
 26th February Microsoft moves to Redmond
 13th March Microsoft stock goes public
 May 1986 Atari releases the 7800 console
 1st September Acorn launches the BBC Master Compact
 27th September Nintendo releases the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

1987 [Detail]
 8th January Commodore announces the Amiga A500 & A2000
 2nd March Apple launches the Macintosh II
 2nd April IBM introduces the PS/2 series of computers
 9th December Microsoft releases Windows 2.0

1988 [Detail]
 2nd November Robert Tappan Morris launches the Morris computer worm

1989 [Detail]
 19th January Apple introduces the Macintosh SE/30
 April 1989 Acorn releases RISC OS
 21st April Nintendo releases the Game Boy
 20th September Apple releases the Macintosh Portable

1990 [Detail]
 15th February IBM introduces IBM RS/6000
 24th April NASA launches the Hubble Space Telescope
 22nd May Microsoft releases Windows 3.0
 June 1990 Commodore releases the Amiga 3000
 13th September Sega launches the Mega Drive console in Europe
 6th October Sega releases the Game Gear

1991 [Detail]
 8th February Silicon & Synapse, later Blizzard Entertainment, is founded
 6th August Tim Berners-Lee publishes the first ever website
 9th August NASA astronauts send the first e-mail from space
 17th September Linus Torvalds releases Linux
 21st October Apple releases the PowerBook 100

1992 [Detail]
 January 1992 Commodore releases the the Amiga A500+
 6th April Microsoft releases Windows 3.1
 11th April Nintendo releases the SNES in the UK
 2nd October Congress allows commercial networks to connect to the Internet

1993 [Detail]
 19th January IBM announces record-breaking losses
 22nd March Intel releases the Pentium chip
 5th April Nvidia is founded
 16th July Commodore announces the Amiga CD32 game console
 3rd August Apple releases the Newton MessagePad
 27th August Compaq introduces the Presario range of computers

1994 [Detail]
 January 1994 David Filo and Jerry Yang found Yahoo!
 4th April Marc Andreessen founds Netscape
 16th April Acorn releases the Risc PC 600
 24th May Silicon & Synapse becomes Blizzard Entertainment
 13th October Netscape launches Navigator web browser
 22nd November Sega releases the Saturn console
 3rd December Sony releases PlayStation in Japan

1995 [Detail]
 22nd May Nvidia announces NV1
 23rd May Sun Microsystems releases Java
 24th August Microsoft releases Windows 95
 3rd September Pierre Omidyar founds eBay
 29th September Sony launches PlayStation in Europe

1996 [Detail]
 23rd June Nintendo releases the Nintendo 64
 20th December Apple buys NeXT, and Steve Jobs returns

1997 [Detail]
 11th May IBM's Deep Blue beats Gary Kasparov at chess
 15th May Jeff Bezos floats Amazon on the stock market

1998 [Detail]
 6th May Apple announces the iMac
 25th June Microsoft releases Windows 98
 4th September Larry Page and Sergey Brin found Google
 21st October Nintendo releases the Game Boy Color
 27th November Sega releases the Dreamcast console

1999 [Detail]
 1st June Shawn Fanning launches Napster
 11th October Nvidia releases GeForce 256
 31st December The Millennium Bug strikes, but disaster is averted

2000 [Detail]
 17th February Microsoft launches Windows 2000
 24th November Sony releases PlayStation 2 in Europe

2001 [Detail]
 21st March Nintendo releases the Game Boy Advance
 23rd October Apple launches the iPod
 25th October Microsoft releases Windows XP
 15th November Microsoft releases Xbox
 2nd December World Computer Literacy Day is launched

2002 [Detail]
 3rd May Nintendo releases the GameCube in Europe
 7th November Microsoft and partners launch Tablet PC

2003 [Detail]
 24th April Microsoft releases Windows Server 2003

2004 [Detail]
 21st January Nintendo releases the Nintendo DS
 4th February Mark Zuckerberg launches "Thefacebook" from Harvard dorm
 1st April Google launches Gmail
 19th August Google floats on the stock exchange
 20th October Canonical releases Ubuntu Linux
 9th November Mozilla releases Firefox 1.0
 10th November Google's index reaches 8 billion pages
 12th December Sony releases PSP in Japan

2005 [Detail]
 23rd April First video uploaded to YouTube
 22nd November Microsoft releases Xbox 360

2006 [Detail]
 25th June Microsoft announces Bill Gates transition
 11th November Sony releases PlayStation 3 in Japan
 18th November Nintendo releases Wii

2007 [Detail]
 30th January Microsoft releases Windows Vista
 29th June Apple introduces the iPhone

2008 [Detail]
 19th February Blu-ray wins the HD format war
 26th August Computer virus found on International Space Station
 20th October HTC releases the first Android smartphone

2009 [Detail]
 22nd October Microsoft releases Windows 7

2010 [Detail]
 20th February Commodore VIC-20 becomes the oldest computer to tweet
 26th May Apple overtakes Microsoft as world's most valuable technology company
 28th May Apple releases the iPad in the UK

2011 [Detail]
 26th February Nintendo releases the Nintendo 3DS
 24th August Steve Jobs retires as CEO of Apple
 5th October Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, dies age 56
 17th December Sony releases PS Vita in Japan

2012 [Detail]
 18th January Wikipedia and others protest anti-piracy law
 25th June Google Brain recognises cats in YouTube videos
 18th November Nintendo releases Wii U

2013 [Detail]
 11th January Aaron Swartz dies
 6th June Edward Snowden reveals NSA digital surveillance
 15th November Sony releases PlayStation 4
 22nd November Microsoft releases Xbox One

2014 [Detail]
 4th February Bill Gates returns to Microsoft as Technology Adviser
 20th February Facebook buys WhatsApp
 25th March Facebook buys Oculus
 26th April New Mexico landfill site is excavated for Atari materials
 18th June Bletchley Park officially opens to the public
 25th June Google announces Android smartwatches
 25th August Amazon buys Twitch
 25th October Queen Elizabeth II opens Information Age gallery at the Science Museum

2015 [Detail]
 21st January Microsoft announces HoloLens headset
 28th January Apple posts biggest quarterly profit in history
 9th March Apple launches Apple Watch
 26th November Raspberry Pi Foundation launches the Raspberry Pi Zero

2016 [Detail]
 6th July Pokémon GO popularises Augmented Reality gaming

2017 [Detail]
 3rd March Nintendo releases the Nintendo Switch

2018 [Detail]
 3rd January Google discloses the Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilities
 15th October Paul Allen dies aged 65

2019 [Detail]
 23rd October Google claims to achieve quantum supremacy

2020 [Detail]
 10th November Microsoft releases Xbox Series X and Series S
 12th November Sony releases PlayStation 5

2021 [Detail]
 16th September Sir Clive Sinclair dies aged 81

2022 [Detail]
 30th November OpenAI launches ChatGPT

2023 [Detail]
 30th May Experts warn that AI could lead to human extinction

2024 [Detail]

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